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However, the broader range of sexual traits that are expected to accumulate on the Z-chromosome may facilitate adaptive speciation in female-heterogametic species by allowing male signals and female preferences to remain in linkage disequilibrium despite periods of gene flow.

Understanding the speciation process remains a challenge in evolutionary biology (Coyne and Orr, 2004; Dieckmann et al., 2004; Price, 2007) but in recent decades much progress has been made regarding our knowledge of how reproductive isolation evolves.

Reproductive isolation in sexually reproducing organisms is caused by one or a combination of prezygotic and postzygotic isolation.The nature of the genes underlying each form of isolation may be intrinsically linked to their genomic distribution, and both are likely to affect the magnitude and chronology of their role in the speciation process.Just as forms of isolation follow a temporal pattern, the genetics of reproductive isolation may change through time such that genes and genomic regions causing isolation early in the speciation process may differ from those involved later on.Prezygotic isolation can be caused by reduced probability of meeting (spatial or temporal isolation), mating (sexual isolation) or successful fertilization (for example due to homogametic sperm preferences or sperm-egg incompatibilities).Postzygotic isolation can be caused by extrinsic factors such as inferior niche adaptation or reduced attractiveness of hybrids or by intrinsic incompatibilities leading to reduced fertility or viability of hybrids.

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